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The Davy Crockett Weapons System, the Cold War and the NRC

Michael Norato
Chief of the Materials Decommissioning Branch
 

The Davy Crockett weapons system – a Cold War-era recoilless rifle – never actually saw battle. But there are remnants of it at several former training sites around the country, including two in Hawaii. How does that involve the NRC? A part of this system, the spotting army guy copyround, contained depleted uranium (DU). The NRC is now reviewing the Army’s application to possess and manage these spotting rounds in Hawaii.

The Atomic Energy Commission, the NRC’s predecessor, gave the Army a license to fabricate and distribute the spotting rounds. These low-speed projectiles helped to ensure accurate targeting. They emitted a puff a white smoke on impact. They did not explode, but they made it possible to see if aiming adjustments were needed.

In 2005, the Army found tail assemblies from the spotting rounds at the Schofield Barracks on Oahu. That discovery prompted a review of all sites where the Army trained with the system. The Army found DU at other sites, including the Pohakuloa Training Area on the big island of Hawaii. The Army has enough DU at these sites that, under NRC regulations, it is required to have a possession license. The Army applied for an NRC license in November 2008.

Natural uranium is made up of three “isotopes”—forms with different numbers of neutrons and distinct physical properties: U-234, U-235 and U-238. “Depleted” uranium has had U-234 and U-235 removed, increasing the percentage of U-238. Only slightly radioactive, DU can be toxic to the kidneys if ingested, such as by inhaling dust or drinking contaminated water. DU is about twice as dense as lead, making it useful in commercial and military applications.

An Army information booklet said the DU is in large fragments, not small dust particles. It is on operational ranges that are not accessible to the public. Data the Army collected and analyzed show there is no immediate health risk to people who work at the ranges or live nearby. The high density and large fragment size mean the DU cannot easily become airborne or move off-site.

The NRC asked the Army to provide plans for environmental radiation monitoring and security. The Army initially provided two plans that could apply to any of the sites where it used Davy Crockett spotting rounds. It later provided specific plans for the two sites in hawaiiHawaii.

The NRC is continuing to work with the Army to issue a license. As an NRC licensee, the Army must follow NRC regulations and standards for protecting the public and the environment. These may include monitoring radiation in the air and plants and further controlling access to the sites. The NRC will oversee that monitoring through periodic inspections and reviews. The Army will be able to amend its license to add other sites where it has found DU from the Davy Crockett system. The license and the Army’s monitoring and access control programs will support future site cleanup.

More information on DU is available on the Heath Physics Society’s website.

9 responses to “The Davy Crockett Weapons System, the Cold War and the NRC

  1. john bowers July 13, 2013 at 12:43 am

    This appears to be good. What I have wondered since learning about DU is how many ranges in the US where A-10s were practicing, were shot up with DU?

  2. Anonymous July 11, 2013 at 10:26 am

    Why is a license required? Since the fissile isotopes have been removed what interest does NRC have in this material?

    • Moderator July 11, 2013 at 1:50 pm

      The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, gave the NRC regulatory authority over “source material,” which includes any form of uranium. The Army must obtain an NRC license because it does not qualify for any exemptions from licensing provided in our source material licensing requirements (10 CFR Part 40).

      Michael Norato

      • Anonymous July 11, 2013 at 3:19 pm

        OK, fair enough – NRC is enforcing the law and the regulations. But what is the rationale for the authority over the depleted uranium? And what is the basis for the exemptions listed in 10CFR40? I just scanned through them and it seems like it’s simply a list of pre-existing uses (e.g., uranium in pottery glaze is OK, thorium in lantern mantles or photo lenses is OK). I’m not trying to start an argument here, I’m genuinely curious as to the rationale since (at first blush) it seems like a waste of time.

  3. Sandra July 10, 2013 at 6:50 pm

    Nice blog! Thanks

  4. Stephen Burns July 10, 2013 at 4:33 pm

    It’s five years on and still no license? While I don’t suggest there’s a safety hazard, it’s hard to understand what takes so long. This issue was on our plate when I left NRC in 2012, and given the relative simplicity, it is hard to understand what takes so long.

  5. Jeff Walther July 10, 2013 at 11:58 am

    So this has been taking up time and money for five years, for objects which are in large chunks, aren’t an ingestion or inhalation hazard and represent little to no radiation hazard?

  6. Anonymous July 10, 2013 at 9:46 am

    Is the NRC aware of any other military training sites located in other states where these DU containing spotting rounds were used?

    • Moderator July 10, 2013 at 3:57 pm

      The draft license the NRC sent to the Army May 9 names additional Army forts that contain DU. They are Forts Benning and Gordon (Georgia); Fort Campbell (Kentucky); Fort Carson (Colorado); Fort Hood (Texas); Fort Knox (Kentucky); Joint Base Lewis-McChord and the Yakima Training Center (Washington); Fort Bragg (North Carolina); Fort Polk (Louisiana); Fort Sill (Oklahoma); Fort Jackson (South Carolina); Fort Hunter Liggett (California); Fort Greeley (Alaska); Fort Dix (New Jersey); and Fort Riley (Kansas).

      Michael Norato

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